Opera

Giulio Cesare in Egitto / Julius Caesar in Egypt

Georg Friedrich Händel

Opera in three acts Performed in Italian with German surtitles

Julius Caesar follows his enemy Pompey to Egypt. There, Pharaoh Tolomeo (Ptolemy) greets the Romancommander with Pompey’s severed head. However, this welcoming gift only infuriates Caesar, and the wheels of revenge and intrigue begin to turn. Cleopatra, the sister of Tolomeo, covets the Egyptian throne and ensnares Caesar in order to realise her political goals. At the same time she allies herself with Pompey’s widow Cornelia and her son Sesto who, intent on revenge, are plotting the pharaoh’s destruction. The latter, however, is not idle. Caesar makes a heroic attempt to free Cleopatra, who has in the meantime become his lover, from the clutches of her brother. Succeeding in this, and with Pompey’s death avenged by the killing of Tolomeo, Caesar can celebrate with Cleopatra … the new Queen of Egypt. 

Summary

Julius Caesar follows his enemy Pompey to Egypt. There, Pharaoh Tolomeo (Ptolemy) greets the Romancommander with Pompey’s severed head. However, this welcoming gift only infuriates Caesar, and the wheels of revenge and intrigue begin to turn. Cleopatra, the sister of Tolomeo, covets the Egyptian throne and ensnares Caesar in order to realise her political goals. At the same time she allies herself with Pompey’s widow Cornelia and her son Sesto who, intent on revenge, are plotting the pharaoh’s destruction. The latter, however, is not idle. Caesar makes a heroic attempt to free Cleopatra, who has in the meantime become his lover, from the clutches of her brother. Succeeding in this, and with Pompey’s death avenged by the killing of Tolomeo, Caesar can celebrate with Cleopatra … the new Queen of Egypt. 

Synopsis

Background
Returning victorious from the battle at Pharsalus, Julius Caesar chases Pompey, his rival in the Roman Republic’s civil war, and follows him to Egypt.

Act 1
Arriving on Egyptian soil, the Roman general is hailed as Pompey’s vanquisher. Cornelia, Pompey’s wife, and their son Sesto beg for peace and Caesar’s clemency which Caesar is willing to grant. Caesar is horrified when Achilla, envoy of Ptolemy, King of Egypt, presents him with Pompey's severed head. Caesar swears to punish this atrocity. Cornelia laments the death of her husband, and her son Sesto swears revenge for the death of his father. Cleopatra is in dispute with her brother Ptolemy over the Egyptian throne. She develops a plan with her confidant Nireno to seduce Caesar and use his help to depose Ptolemy as King. Achilla reports Caesar’s wrath to Ptolemy and offers to kill the Roman Emperor in return for Cornelia's hand. Contemplating Pompey’s funeral urn, Caesar reflects on the irrelevance of earthly glory. Cleopatra presents herself to Caesar disguised as Lydia. She asks him for his support against Ptolemy. Caesar is immediately enchanted by her beauty. He promises to help. In Sesto and his mother Cornelia, Cleopatra finds allies for her plan to destroy Ptolemy. Ptolemy receives Caesar with treacherous friendliness. In their verbal exchange, the Roman shows his superiority.Cornelia’s and Sesto’s planned attack on Ptolemy at his royal palace is thwarted by Achilla who desires and harasses Cornelia. As prisoners, mother and son lament their fate.

Intermission

Act 2
First part
Using all her powers of persuasiveness, Cleopatra alias Lydia wins Caesar over completely. Ptolemy too clearly desires his prisoner Cornelia. When she spurns him, he threatens her with violence. No sooner said, Nireno arrives with the news that he is to take Cornelia to Ptolemy’s harem. Sesto senses his next chance to take revenge on the Egyptian tyrant. A romantic encounter between Caesar and Cleopatra is suddenly interrupted when Curio, Caesar’s general, bursts onto the scene with the news of a conspiracy against him. Cleopatra, who only now reveals her true identity, urges Caesar to flee but Caesar sets out to fight the conspirators. Cleopatra stays behind in despair.

Intermission

Act 2
Second part
After a new attempt on Ptolemy’s life – this time in the harem – once again fails, Achilla announces Caesar’s death in the presence of the assassins. Achilla now demands Cornelia’s hand as the payment bargained but Ptolemy orders him away as a traitor. Cornelia and Sesto recognise the hopelessness of their situation but swear once more to take revenge on Ptolemy.

Act 3
Achilla is insulted by the Egyptian King breaking his promise to give him Cornelia’s hand in marriage. He decides to change sides and join Cleopatra and her followers. Cleopatra is in the midst of a civil war against her brother’s troops. Ptolemy succeeds in capturing his sister. A solitary figure in despair, she remains behind. Caesar, believed dead, unexpectedly returns and promises to save Cleopatra, Cornelia and Sesto.  Carrying the seal of the mortally wounded Achilla, Caesar takes command of Achilla’s army. He also succeeds in freeing Cleopatra and prepares for the final retaliatory attack. Meanwhile, Ptolemy again harasses Cornelia who resists, but help is near and Ptolemy is killed. Victorious, Caesar celebrates with Cleopatra, the new Queen of Egypt.

Complete Cast

Members of the Sächsischer Staatsopernchor Dresden
Staatskapelle Dresden

Generously supported by the Semperoper Foundation

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